tourette's, tics, and ocd
UNDERSTANDING TOURETTE'S, TICS, AND OCD?
It has been observed in clinical studies that individuals with Tourette syndrome, Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD), and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are predisposed to having other conditions that co-exist in addition to the symptoms of the disorder. These problems include allergies, anxiety, autoimmune disease, chronic pain, eating disorders, headaches, cognitive difficulties, restless leg syndrome (RLS), and poor immunity. Studies have shown that these conditions are also associated with oxidative stress, mineral deficiency, and microbial imbalance. Very often, these abnormalities are not identified through routine lab work and are dismissed as insignificant when they are discovered. Unless properly addressed, these abnormalities will continue to inhibit the various chemical pathways necessary for proper neurological and immune function. The resulting complications will contribute to, and may even cause, the symptoms of Tourette syndrome, CTD, OCD, and other mental health disorders.
Some individuals develop symptoms of Tourette syndrome, CTD, and OCD as a result of brain trauma. As observed in clinical studies, there can be factors such as inflammation which occur in the body as a result of trauma. These factors may lead to the progression of the symptoms Tourette Syndrome, CTD, and OCD. Comprehensive biomedical testing may still be very useful in these cases where no other physical symptoms are apparent and the cause is known.
Allen RP, Barker PB, Dphil, Wehrl F, song HK, Earley CJ." MRI measurement of brain iron in patients with restless leg syndrome" American Academy of Neurology (2001) 56, 263-265
Biederman J, Newcorn J, Sprich S. "Comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with conduct, depressive anxiety, and other disorders" American Journal of Psychiatry (1991) 148, 564-577
Ciancarelli L, DiMassimo C, Tozzi-Ciancarelli MG, DeMatteis G, Marini C, Carolei A. "Helicobacter pylori infection and migrane" Cephalagia (2002) 22, 222-225
Gillberg C, Billsted E. "Autism and aspergers syndrome: coexistance with other clinical disorders" Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica (2000) 102, 321-330
Grimaldi B." The central role of magnesium deficiency in Tourette's syndrome: casual relationships between magnesium deficiency, altered biochemical pathways and symptoms relating to Tourette's syndrome and several comorbid conditions" Medical Hypotheses (2003) 58, 47-60
Hershey A, Powers S, Vockell A, LeCates S, Ellinor P, Segers A, Burdine D, Manning P, Kabbouche M."Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and response to supplementation in pediatric and adolecent Migraine" The Journal of Head and Face Pain (2007) 47, 73-80
Kwak C, Dat Vuong K, Jankovic J. "Migraine headache in patient with Tourettes syndrome" Archives of Neurology (2003) 60, 1595-1595
Leckman l, Katsovich I, Kawikova H, Lin H, Zhang H, Krong S, Morshed S, Parveen H Grantz P. "Increased serum levels of interlukin-12 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in Tourette's syndrome" Biological Psychiatry (2003) 57, 667-673
Marazziti D. "Immunological alterations in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder" Biological Psychiatry (2003) 46, 810-814
Margolese H, Annable L, Dion Y. "Depression and dysphoria in adult adolesent patients with Tourettes disorder treated with risperidone" The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (2002) 63, 1040-1044
Meana M. "The meeting of pain and depression: comorbidity in women" Canadian Journal of Psychiatry (1998) 43, 893-899
Milos G, Spindler A, Ruggiero G, Klaghofer R, Schnyder U. "Comorbidity of obsessive compulsive disorder and duration of eating disorders" International Journal of Eating Disorders (2002) 31, 284-289
Morshed S. "Antibodies against neural, nuclear, cytockeletal, and streptococcal epitopes in children and adults with Tourette's syndrome, sydenham's chorea and autoimmune Disorders" Biological Psychiatry (2001) 50, 566-577
Muller-Vahl K, Buddensiek N, Geomelas M, Emrich H." The influence of food and drink on tics in Tourette's syndrome" Acta Paediatrica (2008) 97, 442-446
Musselman D, Miller A, Porter M, Mantunga A, Gao Feng, Penna S, Pearce B, Landry J, Glover S, McDaniel S, Nemeroff C. "Higher than normal plasma Interlukin-6 concentrations in cancer patients with depression: preliminary findings" American Journal of Psychiatry (2001) 158, 1252-1257
Picchietti D, Underwood D, Farris W, Walters A, Shah M, Dahl R, Trubnick L, Bertocci M, Wagner M, Hening W."Further studies on periodic limb movement disorder and restless legs syndrome in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder" Movement Disorders (2001) 14, 1000-1007
Radat F, Swendsen J. "Psychiatric comorbidity in migrane: a review" Cephalalgia (2005) 25, 165-178
Raison C, Capuron L, Miller A."Cytokines Sing the Blues: inflammation and the pathogenesis of depression" Trends in Immunology (2005) 27, 24-31
Sheppard D, Bradshaw J, Rosemary P, Christos P." Tourette's and comorbid syndromes Obsessive compulsive and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. a common etiology" Clinical Psychology Review (1999) 19, 531-552
Woolston J, Rosenthal S, Riddle M, Sparrow S, Cicchetti D, Zimmerman L. "Childhood comorbidity of anxiety/affective disorders and behavior disorders" Journal of the American Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1989) 28, 707-713