clinical references

The scientific validity of tests performed at The Great Plains Laboratory, Inc. can be found in clinical studies and professional research papers. Such resources provide evidence for the practitioner to support the principles of testing outside of routine lab work. The observational data gleamed from these and other peer-reviewed journals can help the practitioner to determine the most suitable tests and treatment options for patients. The information may also provide important conclusions about the significance of biomedical testing when filing appeals to insurance. For your convenience, this page is continually updated to include the most current and cutting edge research in the field.

 

ALLERGY & IMMUNODEFICIENCY

 

calcium + Magnesium

  • Guyton, Arthur. Textbook of Medical Physiology,3rd edition. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia, 1966,pgs1100-1118.
  • Fleming, CR, et al.  The importance of urinary magnesium values in patients with gut failure.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 1996 Jan;71(1):21-4.
  • Hediger ML, England LJ,Molloy CA, Yu KF, Manning-Courtney P, Mills JL. Reduced bone cortical thickness in boys with autism or autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38(5):848–856
  • Coleman, M. Clinical presentations of patients with autism and hypocalcinuria. Develop. Brain Dys. 7: 63-70, 1994
  • Caudarella R, Vescini F, Buffa A, Stefoni S. Citrate and mineral metabolism: kidney stones and bone disease. Front Biosci. 2003 Sep 1;8:s1084-106.
 

GENETIC TESTING

  • Biello D, Harmon K. Tools for Life. Sci Am. 2010;303:17-18.
  • Marian AJ. Sequencing your genome: what does it mean? Methodist Debakey Cardiovasc J. 2014;10(1):3-6.
  • McCarthy DJ, Humburg P, Kanapin A, et al. Choice of transcripts and software has a large effect on variant annotation. Genome Med. 2014;6(3):26.
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74(12):5463-5467.
  • Livak KJ, Flood SJ, Marmaro J, Giusti W, Deetz K. Oligonucleotides with fluorescent dyes at opposite ends provide a quenched probe system useful for detecting PCR product and nucleic acid hybridization. PCR Methods Appl. 1995;4(6):357-362.
  • Shi MM, Myrand SP, Bleavins MR, de la Iglesia FA. High throughput genotyping for the detection of a single nucleotide polymorphism in NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase (DT diaphorase) using TaqMan probes. Mol Pathol. 1999;52(5):295-299.
  • Lin B, Wang J, Cheng Y. Recent Patents and Advances in the Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies. Recent Pat Biomed Eng. 2008;2008(1):60-67.
  • Wiemels JL, Smith RN, Taylor GM, et al. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms and risk of molecularly defined subtypes of childhood acute leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(7):4004-4009.
  • Deloughery TG, Evans A, Sadeghi A, et al. Common mutation in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Correlation with homocysteine metabolism and late-onset vascular disease. Circulation. 1996;94(12):3074-3078.
  • Craddock N, Owen MJ, O'Donovan MC. The catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) gene as a candidate for psychiatric phenotypes: evidence and lessons. Mol Psychiatry. 2006;11(5):446-458.
  • Guengerich FP. Mechanisms of drug toxicity and relevance to pharmaceutical development. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2011;26(1):3-14.
  • Ingelman-Sundberg M. Genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6): clinical consequences, evolutionary aspects and functional diversity. Pharmacogenomics J. 2005;5(1):6-13.
  • Ingelman-Sundberg M. Genetic susceptibility to adverse effects of drugs and environmental toxicants. The role of the CYP family of enzymes. Mutat Res. 2001;482(1-2):11-19.
  • Kalra BS. Cytochrome P450 enzyme isoforms and their therapeutic implications: an update. Indian J Med Sci. 2007;61(2):102-116.
  • Rutter M. Incidence of autism spectrum disorders: changes over time and their meaning. Acta Paediatr. 2005;94(1):2-15.
  • Sanders SJ, He X, Willsey AJ, et al. Insights into Autism Spectrum Disorder Genomic Architecture and Biology from 71 Risk Loci. Neuron. 2015;87(6):1215-1233.
  • Iossifov I, O'Roak BJ, Sanders SJ, et al. The contribution of de novo coding mutations to autism spectrum disorder. Nature. 2014;515(7526):216-221.
  • De Rubeis S, He X, Goldberg AP, et al. Synaptic, transcriptional and chromatin genes disrupted in autism. Nature. 2014;515(7526):209-215.
  • Hall BM, Walsh JC, Horvath JS, Lytton DG. Peripheral neuropathy complicating primary hyperoxaluria. J Neurol Sci. 1976;29(2-4):343-349.
  • Poore RE, Hurst CH, Assimos DG, Holmes RP. Pathways of hepatic oxalate synthesis and their regulation. Am J Physiol. 1997;272(1 Pt 1):C289-29
 

CLOSTRIDIA

  • Beatty, H. Botulism. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 10th edition, ed. R. Petersdorf, et al. McGraw Hill. New York. 1983. Pages 1009-1013.
  • Meyer, K.F. and Lang, O.W. A highly heat-resistant sporulating anaerobic bacterium: Clostridium caloritolerans, N. SP. The Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol. 39, No. 4 (Oct., 1926), pp. 321-327
  • Chalmers, R.A., Valman. H.B., and Liberman, M.M., Measurement of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic aciduria as a screening test for small-bowel disease. Clin Chem 25:1791, 1979
  • Carrico, R.M. Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC) Implementation Guide to Preventing Clostridium difficile Infections http://apic.org/Resource_/EliminationGuideForm/59397fc6-3f90-43d1-9325-e8be75d86888/File/2013CDiffFinal.pdf (accessed Oct 30,2014)
  • Sivsammye, G. and Sims, H.V. Presumptive identification of Clostridium difficile by detection of p-cresol (4-cresol) in prepared peptone yeast glucose broth supplemented with p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. J Clin Microbiol. Aug 1990; 28(8): 1851–1853.
  • Phua, T.J., Rogers, T.R., and Pallett, A.P. Prospective study of Clostridium difficile colonization and paracresol detection in the stools of babies on a special care unit. J. Hyg., Camb. (1984). 93. 17-25 17
  • Yokoyama, M. T., Tabori, C., Miller, E. R. and Hogberg, M. G. (1982). The effects of antibiotics in the weanling pig diet on growth and the excretion of volatile phenolic and aromatic bacterial metabolites. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 35, 1417-1424.
  • Persico, A.M. and Napolioni, V. Urinary p-cresol (4-cresol) in autism spectrum disorder. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 36 (2012) 82–90
  • Wells, J.M. and Allison, C. Molecular genetics of intestinal anaerobes. In: Human Colonic Bacteria. Role in Nutrition, Physiology, and Pathology. Gibson and MacFarlane, ed. CRC Press. Ann Arbor. 1995. Page28
  • Conway, P. Microbial ecology of the human large intestine. In: Human Colonic Bacteria. Role in Nutrition, Physiology, and Pathology. Gibson and MacFarlane, ed. CRC Press. Ann Arbor. 1995. Pages 1-24
 

 

HORMONE TESTING

  • Percutaneous administration of progesterone: blood levels and endometrial protection Stanczyk FZ, et al. Menopause (2005), 12(2): 232-237.
  • Salivary, but not serum or urinary levels of progesterone are elevated after topical application of progesterone cream to pre- and postmenopausal women. O'Leary P, et al. Clin Endo (2005) 53: 615-620.
  • A study to evaluate serum and urinary hormone levels following short and long term administration of two regimens of progesterone cream in postmenopausal women. Carey BJ, et al. British J Obstetrics and Gynecology (2000) 107:722-726.
  • Topical progesterone cream has an antiproliferative effect on estrogen-stimulated endometrium Leonetti HB, et al. Fertility and Sterility (2003) 79:221-2.
  • Micronized transdermal progesterone and endometrial response Wren BG, et al. Lancet (1999) 354: 1447-8.
  • Hormones in Saliva Vining RF and McGinley RA. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences. (1986) 23(2):95-146.
  • Salivary cortisol: a better measure of adrenal cortical function than serum Vining RF, et al. Ann Clin Biochem (1983) 20:329-35.
  • Influences of percutaneous administration of estradiol and progesterone on human breast epithelial cell cycle in vivo Chang KJ, et al. Fertil Steril (1995) 63(4):785-91.
  • Salivary cortisol determined by enzyme immunoassay is preferable to serum total cortisol for assessment of dynamic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity Gozansky WS, et al. Clin Endocrin (2005) 63:336-341.
  • Direct assay for progesterone in saliva: comparison with a direct serum assay Webley GE, Edwards R. Ann Clin Biochem (1985) 22:579-585.
  • Human Erythrocyte Membrane Uptake of Progesterone and Chemical Alterations Devenuto F, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Acta (1969) 193:36-47.
  • Saliva as a Medium for Investigating Intra- and Interindividual Differences in Sex Hormone Levels in Premenopausal Women Peter H. Gann, Susan Giovanazzi, Linda Van Horn, Amy Branning, and Robert T. Chatterton, Jr. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. Vol. 10, 59-64, January 2001.
  • Validation of salivary testosterone as a screening test for male hypogonadism Morley, J et al. The Aging Male. September 2006; 9(3): 165-169.
  • Salivary cortisol and DHEA levels in the Korean population: age-related differences, diurnal rhythm, and correlations with serum levels Ahn RS, Lee YJ, Choi JY, Kwon HB, Chun SI. Yonsei Med J. 2007 Jun 30;48(3):379-88.
  • Salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to puberty and gender>Netherton C, Goodyer I, Tamplin A, Herbert J. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 Feb;29(2):125-40.
  • Salivary Sex Hormone Measurement in a National, Population-based Study of Older Adults Gavrilova N, Lindau ST. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2009 Nov; 64 Suppl 1:i94-105.
 

INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS

 

OXALATES

  • Kohmani EF. Oxalic acid in foods and its behavior and fate in the diet. Journal of Nutrition. (1939) 18(3):233-246,1939
  • Tsao G. Production of oxalic acid by a wood-rotting fungus. Appl Microbiol. (1963) May; 11(3): 249-254.
  • Takeuchi H, Konishi T, Tomoyoshi T. Observation on fungi within urinary stones. Hinyokika Kiyo. (1987) May;33(5):658-61.
  • Lee SH, Barnes WG, Schaetzel WP. Pulmonary aspergillosis and the importance of oxalate crystal recognition in cytology specimens. Arch Pathol Lab Med. (1986) Dec;110(12):1176-9.
  • Muntz FH. Oxalate-producing pulmonary aspergillosis in an alpaca. Vet Pathol. (1999) Nov;36(6):631-2.
  • Loewus FA, Saito K, Suto RK, Maring E. Conversion of D-arabinose to D-erythroascorbic acid and oxalic acid in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. (1995) Jul 6;212(1):196-203.
  • Fomina M, Hillier S, Charnock JM, Melville K, Alexander IJ, Gadd GM. Role of oxalic acid overexcretion in transformations of toxic metal minerals by Beauveria caledonica. Appl Environ Microbiol. (2005) Jan;71(1):371-81.
  • Ruijter GJG, van de Vondervoort PJI, Visser J. Oxalic acid production by Aspergillus niger: an oxalate-non-producing mutant produces citric acid at pH 5 and in the presence of manganese. Microbiology (1999) 145, 2569–2576.
  • Ghio AJ, Peterseim DS, Roggli VL, Piantadosi CA. Pulmonary oxalate deposition associated with Aspergillus niger infection. An oxidant hypothesis of toxicity. Am Rev Respir Dis. (1992) Jun;145(6):1499-502.
  • Takeuchi H, Konishi T, Tomoyoshi T. Detection by light microscopy of Candida in thin sections of bladder stone. Urology. (1989) Dec;34(6):385-7.
  • Ghio AJ, Roggli VL, Kennedy TP, Piantadosi CA. Calcium oxalate and iron accumulation in sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis Vasc Diffuse Lung Dis. (2000) Jun;17(2):140-50.
  • Ott SM, Andress DL, Sherrard DJ. Bone oxalate in a long-term hemodialysis patient who ingested high doses of vitamin C. Am J Kidney Dis. (1986) Dec;8(6):450-4.
  • Hall BM, Walsh JC, Horvath JS, Lytton DG. Peripheral neuropathy complicating primary hyperoxaluria. J Neurol Sci. (1976) Oct;29(2-4):343-9.
  • Sahin G, Acikalin MF, Yalcin AU. Erythropoietin resistance as a result of oxalosis in bone marrow. Clin Nephrol. (2005) May;63(5):402-4.
  • Sarma AV, Foxman B, Bayirli B, Haefner H, Sobel JD. Epidemiology of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome: an exploratory case-control study. Sex Transm Infect. (1999) Oct;75(5):320-6.
  • http://wisewitch.blogspot.com/2006/07/guaifenesinfibromyalgia-and-oxalates.html
  • http://www.diagnoseme.com/cond/C510175.html
  • http://www.vulvarpainfoundation.org/Lowoxalatetreatment.htm
  • Fishbein GA, Micheletti RG, Currier JS, Singer E, Fishbein MC. Atherosclerotic oxalosis in coronary arteries. Cardiovasc Pathol. (2008) ; 17(2): 117–123.
  • Levin RI, PW Kantoff, EA Jaffe. Uremic levels of oxalic acid suppress replication and migration of human endothelial cells. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (1990), 10:198-207
  • Di Pasquale G, Ribani M, Andreoli A, Angelo Zampa G, Pinelli G. Cardioembolic stroke in primary oxalosis with cardiac involvement. Stroke (1989), 20:1403-1406.
  • Ziolkowski F, Perrin DD. Dissolution of urinary stones by calcium-chelating agents: A study using a model system. Invest Urol. (1977) Nov;15(3):208-11.
  • Burns JR, Cargill JG 3rd. Kinetics of dissolution of calcium oxalate calculi with calcium-chelating irrigating solutions. J Urol. (1987) Mar;137(3):530-3.
  • http://www.greatplainslaboratory.com/home/eng/oxalates.asp
  • Kaminishi H, Hagihara Y, Hayashi S, Cho T. Isolation and characteristics of collagenolytic enzyme produced by Candida albicans. Infect Immun. (1986) August; 53(2): 312–316.
  • Shirane Y, Kurokawa Y, Miyashita S, Komatsu H, Kagawa S. Study of inhibition mechanisms of glycosaminoglycans on calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals by atomic force microscopy. Urol Res. (1999) Dec; 27(6):426-31.
  • Chetyrkin SV, Kim D, Belmont JM, Scheinman JI, Hudson BG, Voziyan PA. Pyridoxamine lowers kidney crystals in experimental hyperoxaluria: a potential therapy for primary hyperoxaluria. Kidney Int. (2005) Jan;67(1):53-60.
  • Morrison C. Ditch healthy berries to beat muscle pain: The eating plan that helped me cure my aches and pains. The Daily Mail Online. August 13, 2012. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2187890/Ditch-healthy-berries-beat-muscle-pain-The-eating-plan-helped-cure-aches-pains.html. (Accessed November 21, 2014)
 

 

TOXIC CHEMICALS

Glyphosate:

  • Bradberry SM, Proudfoot AT, Vale JA. Glyphosate poisoning. Toxicol Rev. 2004;23(3):159-67.
  • Mesnage R, Defarge N, Spiroux de Vendômois J, Séralini GE. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Oct;84:133-53. Potential toxic effects of glyphosate and its commercial formulations below regulatory limits.
  • Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Grosse Y et al Carcinogenicity of tetrachlorvinphos, parathion, malathion, diazinon, and glyphosate. Lancet Oncol. 2015 May;16(5):490-1
  • Shehata AA, Schrödl W, Aldin AA, Hafez HM, Krüger M.The effect of glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiota in vitro. Curr Microbiol. 2013 Apr;66(4):350-8.
  • Monika Krüger, Philipp Schledorn, Wieland Schrödl, Hans-Wolfgang Hoppe, Walburga Lutz and Awad A. Shehata.  Detection of Glyphosate Residues in Animals and Humans. J Environ Anal Toxicol 2014, 4:2http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2161-0525.1000210
  • Barbosa ER, Leiros da Costa MD, Bacheschi LA, Scaff M, Leite CC (2001)Parkinsonism after glycine-derivative exposure. Mov Disord 16: 565-568.
  • Channa Jayasumana, Sarath Gunatilake and Sisira Siribaddana Simultaneous exposure to multiple heavy metals and glyphosate may contribute to Sri Lankan agricultural nephropathy BMC Nephrology (2015) 16:103 DOI 10.1186/s12882-015-0109-2
  • Channa Jayasumana, Sarath Gunatilake, and Priyantha Senanayake. Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 2125-2147
  • Nancy L. Swanson, Andre Leu, Jon Abrahamson and Bradley Wallet.Genetically engineered crops, glyphosate and the deterioration of health in the United States of America Journal of Organic Systems, 9(2):6-37, 2014

Phthalates:

Organophosphates:

Other Toxic Chemical References:

Mitochondrial Disorders: